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THE TREATY OF GREENVILLE (1795)
TREATY OF GREENVILLE
WYANDOTS, DELAWARES, ETC.
A treaty of peace between the United States of America, and the
tribes of Indians called the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanees,
Ottawas, Chippewas, Pattawatimas, Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas,
Kickapoos, Piankeshaws, and Kaskaskias.
To put an end to a destructive war, to settle all controversies,
and to restore harmony and friendly intercourse between the said
United States and Indian tribes, Anthony Wayne, major general
commanding the army of the United States, and sole commissioner for
the good purposes above mentioned, and the said tribes of Indians,
by their sachems, chiefs, and warriors, met together at Greenville,
the head quarters of the said army, have agreed on the following
articles, which, when ratified by the President, with the advice
and consent of the Senate of the United States, shall be binding on
them and the said Indian tribes.
Henceforth all hostilities shall cease; peace is hereby
established, and shall be perpetual; and a friendly intercourse
shall take place between the said United States and Indian tribes.
All prisoners shall, on both sides, be restored. The Indians,
prisoners to the United States, shall be immediately set at liberty.
The people of the United States, still remaining prisoners among the
Indians, shall be delivered up in ninety days from the date hereof,
to the general or commanding officer at Greenville, Fort Wayne, or
Fort Defiance; and ten chiefs of the said tribes shall remain at
Greenville as hostages, until the delivery of the prisoners shall
The general boundary line between the lands of the United States
and the lands of the said Indian tribes, shall begin at the mouth of
Cayahoga river, and run thence up the same to the portage, between
that and the Tuscarawas branch of the Muskingum, thence down that
branch to the crossing placeabove Fort Lawrence, thence westerly
to a fork of that branch of the Great Miami river, running into the
Ohio, at or near which fork stood Loromie's store, and where
commences the portage between the Miami of the Ohio, and St. Mary's
river, which is a branch of the Miami which runs into lake Erie;
thence a westerly course to Fort Recovery, which stands on a branch
of the Wabash; thence southwesterly in a direct line to the Ohio,
so as to intersect that river opposite the mouth of Kentucke or
Cuttawa river. And in consideration of the peace now established;
of the goods formerly received from the United States; of those now
to be delivered; and of the yearly delivery of goods now stipulated
to be made hereafter; and to indemnify the United States for the
injuries and expenses they have sustained during the war, the said
Indian tribes do hereby cede and relinquish forever, all their claims
to the lands lying eastwardly and southwardly of the general boundary
line now described: and these lands, or any part of them, shall never
hereafter be made a cause or pretence, on the part of the said tribes,
or any of them, of war or injury to the United States, or any of the
And for the same considerations, and as an evidence of the
returning friendship of the said Indian tribes, of their confidence
in the United States, and desire to provide for their accommodations,
and for that convenient intercourse which will be beneficial to both
parties, the said Indian tribes do also cede to the United States the
following pieces of land, to wit:
1) One piece of land six miles square, at or near Loromie's store,
2) One piece two miles square, at the head of the navigble water or
landing, on the St. Mary's river, near Girty's town.
3) One piece six miles square, at the head of the navigable water of
the Auglaize river.
4) One piece six miles square, at the confluence of the Auglaize and
Miami rivers, where Fort Defiance now stands.
5) One piece six miles square, at or near the confluence of the
rivers St. Mary's and St. Joseph's, where Fort Wayne now stands, or
6) One piece two miles square, on the Wabash river, at the end of the
portage from the Miami of the lake, and about eight miles westward
from Fort Wayne.
7) One piece six miles square, at the Ouatanon, or Old Wea towns, on
the Wabash river.
8) One piece twelve miles square, at the British fort on the Miami of
the lake, at the foot of the rapids.
9) One piece six miles square, at the mouth of the said river, where
it empties into the lake.
10) One piece six miles square, upon Sandusky lake, where a fort
11) One piece two miles square, at the lower rapids of Sandusky river.
12) The post of Detroit, and all the land to the north, the west and
the south of it, of which the Indian title has been extinguished by
gifts or grants to the French or English governments: and so much more
land to be annexed to the district of Detroit, as shall be
comprehended between the river Rosine, on the south, lake St. Clair on
the north, and a line, the general course whereof shall be six miles
distant from the west end of lake Erie and Detroit river.
13) The post of Michilimackinac, and all the land on the island on
which that post stands, and the main land adjacent, of which the
Indian title has been extinguished by gifts or grants to the French
or English governments; and a piece of land on the main to the north
of the island, to measure six miles, on lake Huron, or the strait
between lakes Huron and Michigan, and to extend three miles back from
the water of the lake or strait; and also, the Island De Bois Blane,
being an extra and voluntary gift of the Chippewa nation.
14) One piece of land six miles square, at the mouth of Chikago river,
emptying into the southwest end of lake Michigan, where a fort
15) One piece twelve miles square, at or near the mouth of the
Illinois river, emptying into the Mississippi.
16) One piece six miles square, at the old Piorias fort and village
near the south end of the Illinois lake, on said Illinois river.
And whenever the United States shall think proper to survey and mark
the boundaries of the lands hereby ceded to them, they shall give
timely notice thereof to the said tribes of Indians, that they may
appoint some of their wise chiefs to attend and see that the lines
are run according to the terms of this treaty.
And the said Indian tribes will allow to the people of the United
States a free passage by land and by water, as one and the other
shall be found convenient, through their country, along the chain of
posts hereinbefore mentioned; that is to say, from the commencement
of the portage aforesaid, at or near Loromie's store, thence along
said portage to the St. Mary's, and down the same to Fort Wayne,
and then down the Miami, to lake Erie; again, from the commencement
of the portage at or near Loromie's store along the portage from
thence to the river Auglaize, and down the same to its junction with
the Miami at Fort Defiance; again, from the commencement of the
portage aforesaid, to Sandusky river, and down the same to Sandusky
bay and lake Erie, and from Sandusky to the post which shall be taken
at or near the foot of the Rapids of the Miami of the lake; and from
thence to Detroit. Again, from the mouth of Chikago, to the
commencement of the portage, between that river and the Illinois,
and down the Illinois river to the Mississippi; also, from Fort Wayne,
along the portage aforesaid, which leads to the Wabash, and then down
the Wabash to the Ohio. And the said Indian tribes will also allow
to the people of the United States, the free use of the harbors and
mouths of rivers along the lakes adjoining the Indian lands, for
sheltering vessels and boats, and liberty to land their cargos where
necessary for their safety.
In consideration of the peace now established, and of the cessions
and relinquishments of lands made in the preceding article by the
said tribes of Indians, and to manifest the liberality of the United
States, as the great means of rendering this peace strong and
perpetual, the United States relinquish their claims to all other
Indian lands northward of the river Ohio, eastward of the Mississippi,
and westward and southward of the Great Lakes and the waters, uniting
them, according to the boundary line agreed on by the United States
and the King of Great Britain, in the treaty of peace made between
them in the year 1783. But from this relinquishment by the United
States, the following tracts of land are explicitly excepted:
1st. The tract on one hundred and fifty thousand acres near the
rapids of the river Ohio, which has been assigned to General Clark,
for the use of himself and his warriors.
2nd. The post of St. Vincennes, on the River Wabash, and the lands
adjacent, of which the Indian title has been extinguished.
3rd. The lands at all other places in possession of the French
people and other white settlers among them, of which the Indian
title has been extinguished as mentioned in the 3d article; and
4th. The post of Fort Massac towards the mouth of the Ohio. To
which several parcels of land so excepted, the said tribes
relinquish all the title and claim which they or any of them may have.
And for the same considerations and with the same views as above
mentioned, the United States now deliver to the said Indian tribes
a quantity of goods to the value of twenty thousand dollars, the
receipt whereof they do hereby acknowledge; and henceforward every
year, forever, the United States will deliver, at some convenient
place northward of the river Ohio, like useful goods, suited to the
circumstaces of the Indians, of the value of nine thousand five
hundred dollars; reckoning that value at the first cost of the goods
in the city or place in the United States where they shall be
procured. The tribes to which those goods are to be annually
delivered, and the proportions in which they are to be delivered,
are the following:
1st. To the Wyandots, the amount of one thousand dollars.
2nd. To the Delawares, the amount of one thousand dollars.
3rd. To the Shawanees, the amount of one thousand dollars.
4th. To the Miamis, the amount of one thousand dollars.
5th. To the Ottawas, the amount of one thousand dollars.
6th. To the Chippewas, the amount of one thousand dollars.
7th. To the Pattawatimas, the amount of one thousand dollars, and
8th. To the Kickapoo, Wea, Eel River, Piankeshaw, and Kaskaskia
tribes, the amount of five hundred dollars each.
Provided, that if either of the said tribes shall hereafter, at
an annual delivery of their share of the goods aforesaid, desire
that a part of their annuity should be furnished in domestic animals,
implements of husbandry, and other utensils convenient for them, and
in compensation to useful artificers who may reside with or near
them, and be employed for their benefit, the same shall, at the
subsequent annual deliveries, be furnished accordingly.
To prevent any misunderstanding about the Indian lands
relinquished by the United States in the fourth article, it is now
explicitly declared, that the meaning of that relinquishment is
this: the Indian tribes who have a right to those lands, are quietly
to enjoy them, hunting, planting, and dwelling thereon, so long as
they please, without any molestation from the United States; but when
those tribes, or any of them, shall be disposed to sell their lands,
or any part of them, they are to be sold only to the United States;
and until such sale, the United States will protect all the said
Indian tribes in the quiet enjoyment of their lands against all
citizens of the United States, and against all other white persons
who intrude upon the same. And the said Indian tribes again
acknowledge themselves to be under the protection of the said
United States, and no other power whatever.
If any citizen of the United States, or any other white person
or persons, shall presume to settle upon the lands now relinquished
by the United States, such citizen or other person shall be out of
the protection of the United States; and the Indian tribe, on whose
land the settlement shall be made, may drive off the settler, or
punish him in such manner as they shall think fit; and because such
settlements, made without the consent of the United States, will be
injurious to them as well as to the Indians, the United States shall
be at liberty to break them up, and remove and punish the settlers
as they shall think proper, and so effect that protection of the
Indian lands herein before stipulated.
The said tribes of Indians, parties to this treaty, shall be at
liberty to hunt within the territory and lands which they have now
ceded to the United States, without hindrance or molestation, so long
as they demean themselves peaceably, and offer no injury to the
people of the United States.
Trade shall be opened with the said Indian tribes; and they do
hereby respectively engage to afford protection to such persons,
with their property, as shall be duly licensed to reside among them
for the purpose of trade; and to their agents and servants; but no
person shall be permitted to reside among them for the purpose of
trade; and to their agents and servants; but no person shall be
permitted to reside at any of their towns or hunting camps, as a
trader, who is not furnished with a license for that purpose, under
the hand and seal of the superintendent of the department northwest
of the Ohio, or such other person as the President of the United
States shall authorize to grant such licenses; to the end, that the
said Indians may not be imposed on in their trade. And if any
licensed trader shall abuse his privilege by unfair dealing, upon
complaint and proof thereof, his license shall be taken from him,
and he shall be further punished according to the laws of the United
States. And if any person shall intrude himself as a trader, without
such license, the said Indians shall take and bring him before the
superintendent, or his deputy, to be dealt with according to law.
And to prevent impositions by forged licenses, the said Indians
shall, at lease once a year, give information to the superintendent,
or his deputies, on the names of the traders residing among them.
Lest the firm peace and friendship now established, should be
interrupted by the misconduct of individuals, the United States,
and the said Indian tribes agree, that for injuries done by
individuals on either side, no private revenge or retaliation shall
take place; but instead thereof, complaint shall be made by the party
injured, to the other: by the said Indian tribes or any of them, to
the President of the United States, or the superintendent by him
appointed; and by the superintendent or other person appointed by
the President, to the principal chiefs of the said Indian tribes, or
of the tribe to which the offender belongs; and such prudent measures
shall then be taken as shall be necessary to preserve the said peace
and friendship unbroken, until the legislature (or great council) of
the United States, shall make other equitable provision in the case,
to the satisfaction of both parties. Should any Indian tribes
meditate a war against the United States, or either of them, and the
same shall come to the knowledge of the before mentioned tribes,
or either of them, they do hereby engage to give immediate notice
thereof to the general, or officer commanding the troops of the
United States, at the nearest post. And should any tribe, with
hostile intentions against the United States, or either of them,
attempt to pass through their country, they will endeavor to prevent
the same, and in like manner give information of such attempt, to the
general, or officer commanding, as soon as possible, that all causes
of mistrust and suspicion may be avoided between them and the United
States. In like manner, the United States shall give notice to the
said Indian tribes of any harm that may be meditated against them,
or either of them, that shall come to their knowledge; and do all in
their power to hinder and prevent the same, that the friendship
between them may be uninterrupted.
All other treaties heretofore made between the United States, and
the said Indian tribes, or any of them, since the treaty of 1783,
between the United States and Great Britain, that come within the
purview of this treaty, shall henceforth cease and become void.
In testimony whereof, the said Anthony Wayne, and the sachems and
war chiefs of the before mentioned nations and tribes of Indians,
have hereunto set their hands and affixed their seals.
Done at Greenville, in the territory of the United States
northwest of the river Ohio, on the third day of August, one
thousand seven hundred and ninety five.
PATTAWATIMAS OF THE RIVER ST. JOSEPH.
PATTAWATIMAS OF HURON.
MIAMIS AND EEL RIVERS.
EEL RIVER TRIBE.
WEAS, FOR THEMSELVES AND THE PIANKESHAWS.
KICKAPOOS AND KASKASKIAS.
DELAWARES OF SANDUSKY.
H. De Butts, first A.D.C. and Sec'ry to Major Gen. Wayne
Wm. H. Harrison, Aid de Camp to Major Gen. Wayne
T. Lewis, Aid de Camp to Major Gen. Wayne
James O'Hara, Quartermaster Gen'l.
John Mills, Major of Infantry, and Adj. Gen'l.
Caleb Swan, P.M.T.U.S.
Gen. Demter, Lieut. Artillery
P. Frs. La Fontaine
Ast. Lasselle, Sworn interpreters.
H. Lasselle, Wm. Wells,
Js. Beau Bien, Jacques Lasselle,
David Jones, Chaplain U.S.S. M. Morins,
Lewis Beaufait, Bt. Sans Crainte,
R. Lachambre, Christopher Miller,
Jas. Pepen, Robert Wilson,
Baties Coutien, Abraham Williams,
P. Navarre. Isaac Zane